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Physics
»
G.
Waves and Optics
»
G.2.
Mechanical Waves
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Unit Challenge
Two Types of Mechanical Waves
Overview
Identifying examples and properties of transverse waves
Identifying examples and properties of longitudinal waves
Speed of Mechanical Waves
Overview
Recognizing that the speed of mechanical waves depends on the medium
Recognizing that mechanical waves generally travel the fastest in solids, then liquids, then gases
Recognizing that the speed of mechanical waves depends on the temperature of the medium
Identifying examples and characteristics of refraction in terms of changes in speed, frequency, and wavelength
Determining the wave speed on a stretched string using the equation v = √ (F
_{t}
/μ) where μ = m/L
Characteristics of Sound Waves
Overview
Recognizing that frequency determines pitch
Recognizing that amplitude determines loudness
Identifying regions of compressions and rarefactions for sound waves
Measuring the intensity of a spherical sound wave using the equation I = P/ (4πr
^{2}
)
Comparing the relative intensities of two sound waves based on factors of 10 for every 10 dB
Measuring the relative intensity of a sound wave using the equation β = 10log (I / I
_{0}
)
Doppler Effect for Mechanical Waves
Overview
Recognizing the apparent change in frequency of a sound source moving away from an observer
Recognizing the apparent change in frequency of a sound source moving towards an observer
Recognizing the apparent change in wavelength of a sound source moving away from an observer
Recognizing the apparent change in wavelength of a sound source moving towards an observer
Calculating the observed frequency for a sound source moving toward an observer using f = f
_{o}
Calculating the observed frequency for a sound source moving away from an observer using f = f
_{o}
Reflection and Interference of Mechanical Waves in One-Dimension
Identifying the correct reflected wave for waves on a stretched string with a fixed boundary
Identifying the correct reflected wave for waves on a stretched string with a free boundary
Identifying the correct resultant wave for destructive interference
Identifying the correct resultant wave for constructive interference
Reflection and Diffraction of Mechanical Waves Two-Dimensions
Overview
Determining the angle of reflection for a reflected mechanical wave
Recognizing examples of diffraction
Harmonics 1: Standing Waves in Vibrating Strings
Overview
Identifying and counting nodes in a standing wave
Identifying and counting antinodes in a standing wave
Determining harmonic (resonant) wavelengths using the equation λ
_{n}
= 2L/n or λ
_{n}
= λ
_{1}
/n
Determining harmonic (resonant) frequencies using the equation f
_{n}
= nv / 2L or f
_{nÂ }
=nf
_{1}
Harmonics 2: Standing Waves in a Closed Air Column
Overview
Determining the length of a tube based on the standing wave frequency or wavelength
Determining harmonic (resonant) wavelengths using the equation λ
_{n}
= 4L/n or λ
_{n}
= λ
_{1}
/n for any odd integer n
Determining harmonic (resonant) frequencies using the equation f
_{n}
= nv / 4L or f
_{n }
= nf
_{1}
for any odd integer n
Harmonics 3: Standing Waves in an Open Air Column
Overview
Determining the length of a tube based on the standing wave frequency or wavelength
Determining harmonic (resonant) wavelengths using the equation λ
_{n}
= 2L/n or λ
_{n}
= λ
_{1}
/n for any integer n
Determining harmonic (resonant) frequencies using the equation f
_{n}
= nv / 2L or f
_{n }
= nf
_{1}
for any integer n
Doppler Effect for Mechanical Waves — Calculating the observed frequency for a sound source moving toward an observer using f = f
_{o}
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