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Physics
1-8 Math
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SELECT SUBJECT
All Physics
A.
Motion and Forces
B.
Conservation of Energy and Momentum
C.
Circular Motion and Gravitation
D.
Oscillations
E.
Thermal Physics
F.
Electromagnetism
G.
Waves and Optics
H.
Modern Physics
Physics
»
G.
Waves and Optics
G.1.
General Properties of Waves
G.1.M.
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G.1.Q.
Unit Challenge
G.1.1.
Measurable Properties of Waves
G.1.1.O.
Overview
G.1.1.1.
Identifying and counting crests in a wave diagram
G.1.1.2.
Identifying and counting troughs in a wave diagram
G.1.1.3.
Recognizing full wavelengths
G.1.1.4.
Measuring the wavelength of a wave from a wave diagram
G.1.1.5.
Measuring the amplitude of a wave
G.1.2.
Wave Velocity
G.1.2.O.
Overview
G.1.2.1.
Recognizing that the velocity of a wave is constant in a particular medium
G.1.2.2.
Solving problems involving the velocity of a wave using the equation v = λf
G.1.2.3.
Recognizing the inverse relationship between a wave’s frequency and wavelength
G.1.3.
Mechanical and Electromagnetic Waves
G.1.3.O.
Overview
G.1.3.1.
Identifying examples and properties of mechanical waves
G.1.3.2.
Identifying examples and properties of electromagnetic waves
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G.2.
Mechanical Waves
G.2.M.
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G.2.Q.
Unit Challenge
G.2.1.
Two Types of Mechanical Waves
G.2.1.O.
Overview
G.2.1.1.
Identifying examples and properties of transverse waves
G.2.1.2.
Identifying examples and properties of longitudinal waves
G.2.2.
Speed of Mechanical Waves
G.2.2.O.
Overview
G.2.2.1.
Recognizing that the speed of mechanical waves depends on the medium
G.2.2.2.
Recognizing that mechanical waves generally travel the fastest in solids, then liquids, then gases
G.2.2.3.
Recognizing that the speed of mechanical waves depends on the temperature of the medium
G.2.2.4.
Identifying examples and characteristics of refraction in terms of changes in speed, frequency, and wavelength
G.2.2.5.
Determining the wave speed on a stretched string using the equation v = √ (F
_{t}
/μ) where μ = m/L
G.2.3.
Characteristics of Sound Waves
G.2.3.O.
Overview
G.2.3.1.
Recognizing that frequency determines pitch
G.2.3.2.
Recognizing that amplitude determines loudness
G.2.3.3.
Identifying regions of compressions and rarefactions for sound waves
G.2.3.4.
Measuring the intensity of a spherical sound wave using the equation I = P/ (4πr
^{2}
)
G.2.3.5.
Comparing the relative intensities of two sound waves based on factors of 10 for every 10 dB
G.2.3.6.
Measuring the relative intensity of a sound wave using the equation β = 10log (I / I
_{0}
)
G.2.4.
Doppler Effect for Mechanical Waves
G.2.4.O.
Overview
G.2.4.1.
Recognizing the apparent change in frequency of a sound source moving away from an observer
G.2.4.2.
Recognizing the apparent change in frequency of a sound source moving towards an observer
G.2.4.3.
Recognizing the apparent change in wavelength of a sound source moving away from an observer
G.2.4.4.
Recognizing the apparent change in wavelength of a sound source moving towards an observer
G.2.4.5.
Calculating the observed frequency for a sound source moving toward an observer using f = f
_{o}
G.2.4.6.
Calculating the observed frequency for a sound source moving away from an observer using f = f
_{o}
G.2.5.
Reflection and Interference of Mechanical Waves in One-Dimension
G.2.5.1.
Identifying the correct reflected wave for waves on a stretched string with a fixed boundary
G.2.5.2.
Identifying the correct reflected wave for waves on a stretched string with a free boundary
G.2.5.3.
Identifying the correct resultant wave for destructive interference
G.2.5.4.
Identifying the correct resultant wave for constructive interference
G.2.6.
Reflection and Diffraction of Mechanical Waves Two-Dimensions
G.2.6.O.
Overview
G.2.6.1.
Determining the angle of reflection for a reflected mechanical wave
G.2.6.2.
Recognizing examples of diffraction
G.2.7.
Harmonics 1: Standing Waves in Vibrating Strings
G.2.7.O.
Overview
G.2.7.1.
Identifying and counting nodes in a standing wave
G.2.7.2.
Identifying and counting antinodes in a standing wave
G.2.7.3.
Determining harmonic (resonant) wavelengths using the equation λ
_{n}
= 2L/n or λ
_{n}
= λ
_{1}
/n
G.2.7.4.
Determining harmonic (resonant) frequencies using the equation f
_{n}
= nv / 2L or f
_{nÂ }
=nf
_{1}
G.2.8.
Harmonics 2: Standing Waves in a Closed Air Column
G.2.8.O.
Overview
G.2.8.1.
Determining the length of a tube based on the standing wave frequency or wavelength
G.2.8.2.
Determining harmonic (resonant) wavelengths using the equation λ
_{n}
= 4L/n or λ
_{n}
= λ
_{1}
/n for any odd integer n
G.2.8.3.
Determining harmonic (resonant) frequencies using the equation f
_{n}
= nv / 4L or f
_{n }
= nf
_{1}
for any odd integer n
G.2.9.
Harmonics 3: Standing Waves in an Open Air Column
G.2.9.O.
Overview
G.2.9.1.
Determining the length of a tube based on the standing wave frequency or wavelength
G.2.9.2.
Determining harmonic (resonant) wavelengths using the equation λ
_{n}
= 2L/n or λ
_{n}
= λ
_{1}
/n for any integer n
G.2.9.3.
Determining harmonic (resonant) frequencies using the equation f
_{n}
= nv / 2L or f
_{n }
= nf
_{1}
for any integer n
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G.3.
Electromagnetic Waves and Optics
G.3.M.
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G.3.Q.
Unit Challenge
G.3.1.
Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves
G.3.1.O.
Overview
G.3.1.1.
Determining the wavelength or frequency of an electromagnetic wave using the equation c = λf
G.3.1.2.
Distinguishing between the types of electromagnetic waves in terms of frequency and wavelength
G.3.2.
Doppler Effect for EM Waves
G.3.2.O.
Overview
G.3.2.1.
Recognizing the apparent change in frequency of a light source moving away from or towards an observer
G.3.2.2.
Recognizing the apparent change in wavelength of a light source moving away from or towards an observer
G.3.2.3.
Distinguishing between blue shifts and red shifts
G.3.3.
Geometric Optics 1: Reflection
G.3.3.O.
Overview
G.3.3.1.
Identifying the incident ray, reflected ray, angle of incidence, and angle of reflection
G.3.3.2.
Identifying the correct reflected ray given an incident ray
G.3.3.3.
Determining the angle of reflection for a reflected light ray
G.3.3.4.
Determining the angle between an incident ray and a reflected ray
G.3.4.
Geometric Optics 2: Concave Mirrors
G.3.4.O.
Overview
G.3.4.1.
Identifying the features of concave mirrors: center of curvature (C) , principal axis, principal focus (F) , and focal length (f)
G.3.4.2.
Identifying the correct reflected image for a concave mirror
G.3.5.
Geometric Optics 3: Convex Mirrors
G.3.5.O.
Overview
G.3.5.1.
Identifying the features of convex mirrors: center of curvature (C) , principal axis, principal focus (F) , and focal length (f)
G.3.5.2.
Identify the correct reflected image for a convex mirror
G.3.6.
Geometric Optics 4: Problems Involving Convex and Concave Mirrors
G.3.6.O.
Overview
G.3.6.1.
Determining the distance of a reflected image from a convex or concave mirror using the equation 1/s
_{o}
+ 1/s
_{i}
= 1/f
G.3.6.2.
Determining whether a reflected image is real or virtual, using the equation 1/s
_{o}
+ 1/s
_{i}
= 1/f
G.3.6.3.
Determining the magnification and height of a reflected image using the equation m = -s
_{i}
/s
_{o}
G.3.6.4.
Determining whether an image is upright or inverted, using the equation m = -s
_{i}
/s
_{o}
G.3.7.
Geometric Optics 5: Refraction
G.3.7.O.
Overview
G.3.7.1.
Identifying the incident ray, refracted ray, angle of incidence, and angle of refraction
G.3.7.2.
Predicting a sequence of refracted rays based on indices of refraction
G.3.7.3.
Solving problems involving the index of refraction, n using the equation n = c/v
G.3.7.4.
Solving problems involving Snell’s Law, n
_{1}
sinθ
_{1}
= n
_{2}
sinθ
_{2}
G.3.8.
Geometric Optics 6: Total Internal Reflection
G.3.8.O.
Overview
G.3.8.1.
Identifying examples where total internal reflection will occur
G.3.8.2.
Calculating the criticalangle, Î¸
_{c}
, with the equation Î¸
_{c}
^{ }
=sin
^{-1}
(n
_{2}
/n
_{1}
)
G.3.9.
Geometric Optics 7: Convex Lenses
G.3.9.O.
Overview
G.3.9.1.
Identifying the features of convex lenses: principle axis, principle focus (F) , and the focal length (f)
G.3.9.2.
G.3.10.
Geometric Optics 8: Concave Lenses
G.3.10.O.
Overview
G.3.10.1.
Identifying the features of concave lenses: principle axis, principle focus (F) , and the focal length (f)
G.3.10.2.
Identifying the correct refracted image for a concave lens
G.3.11.
Geometric Optics 9: Problems Involving Convex and Concave Lenses
G.3.11.O.
Overview
G.3.11.1.
Determining the distance of a refracted image from a convex lens using the equation 1/s
_{o}
+ 1/s
_{i}
= 1/f,
G.3.11.2.
Determining whether a refracted image is real or virtual, using the equation 1/s
_{o}
+ 1/s
_{i}
= 1/f
G.3.11.3.
Determining the magnification and height of a refracted image using the equation m = -s
_{i}
/s
_{o}
G.3.11.4.
Determining whether an image is upright or inverted, using the equation m = -s
_{i}
/s
_{o}
G.3.12.
Physical Optics: Polarization, Diffraction and Interference
G.3.12.O.
Overview
G.3.12.1.
Identifying examples of polarization
G.3.12.2.
Identifying examples of single-slit diffraction
G.3.12.3.
Solving problems involving single-slit diffraction using X = m λL/d
G.3.12.4.
Identifying examples of double-slit diffraction
G.3.12.5.
Solving problems involving double-slit diffraction using the equation x = λL/d
G.3.12.6.
Solving problems involving constructive interference using the equation dsinθ = ±mλ
G.3.12.7.
Solving problems involving destructive interference using the equation dsinθ = ± (m + ½) λ
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