• ### G.1. General Properties of Waves

3. #### G.1.1. Measurable Properties of Waves

1. G.1.1.O. Overview
2. G.1.1.1. Identifying and counting crests in a wave diagram
3. G.1.1.2. Identifying and counting troughs in a wave diagram
4. G.1.1.3. Recognizing full wavelengths
5. G.1.1.4. Measuring the wavelength of a wave from a wave diagram
6. G.1.1.5. Measuring the amplitude of a wave
4. #### G.1.2. Wave Velocity

1. G.1.2.O. Overview
2. G.1.2.1. Recognizing that the velocity of a wave is constant in a particular medium
3. G.1.2.2. Solving problems involving the velocity of a wave using the equation v = λf
4. G.1.2.3. Recognizing the inverse relationship between a wave’s frequency and wavelength
5. #### G.1.3. Mechanical and Electromagnetic Waves

1. G.1.3.O. Overview
2. G.1.3.1. Identifying examples and properties of mechanical waves
3. G.1.3.2. Identifying examples and properties of electromagnetic waves
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• ### G.2. Mechanical Waves

3. #### G.2.1. Two Types of Mechanical Waves

1. G.2.1.O. Overview
2. G.2.1.1. Identifying examples and properties of transverse waves
3. G.2.1.2. Identifying examples and properties of longitudinal waves
4. #### G.2.2. Speed of Mechanical Waves

1. G.2.2.O. Overview
2. G.2.2.1. Recognizing that the speed of mechanical waves depends on the medium
5. #### G.2.3. Characteristics of Sound Waves

1. G.2.3.O. Overview
2. G.2.3.1. Recognizing that frequency determines pitch
3. G.2.3.2. Recognizing that amplitude determines loudness
4. G.2.3.3. Identifying regions of compressions and rarefactions for sound waves
5. G.2.3.4. Measuring the intensity of a spherical sound wave using the equation I = P/ (4πr2)
6. #### G.2.4. Doppler Effect for Mechanical Waves

1. G.2.4.O. Overview
7. #### G.2.5. Reflection and Interference of Mechanical Waves in One-Dimension

1. G.2.5.3. Identifying the correct resultant wave for destructive interference
2. G.2.5.4. Identifying the correct resultant wave for constructive interference
8. #### G.2.6. Reflection and Diffraction of Mechanical Waves Two-Dimensions

1. G.2.6.O. Overview
2. G.2.6.1. Determining the angle of reflection for a reflected mechanical wave
3. G.2.6.2. Recognizing examples of diffraction
9. #### G.2.7. Harmonics 1: Standing Waves in Vibrating Strings

1. G.2.7.O. Overview
2. G.2.7.1. Identifying and counting nodes in a standing wave
3. G.2.7.2. Identifying and counting antinodes in a standing wave
10. #### G.2.8. Harmonics 2: Standing Waves in a Closed Air Column

1. G.2.8.O. Overview
2. G.2.8.1. Determining the length of a tube based on the standing wave frequency or wavelength
11. #### G.2.9. Harmonics 3: Standing Waves in an Open Air Column

1. G.2.9.O. Overview
2. G.2.9.1. Determining the length of a tube based on the standing wave frequency or wavelength
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• ### G.3. Electromagnetic Waves and Optics

3. #### G.3.1. Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves

1. G.3.1.O. Overview
4. #### G.3.2. Doppler Effect for EM Waves

1. G.3.2.O. Overview
2. G.3.2.3. Distinguishing between blue shifts and red shifts
5. #### G.3.3. Geometric Optics 1: Reflection

1. G.3.3.O. Overview
2. G.3.3.2. Identifying the correct reflected ray given an incident ray
3. G.3.3.3. Determining the angle of reflection for a reflected light ray
4. G.3.3.4. Determining the angle between an incident ray and a reflected ray
6. #### G.3.4. Geometric Optics 2: Concave Mirrors

1. G.3.4.O. Overview
2. G.3.4.2. Identifying the correct reflected image for a concave mirror
7. #### G.3.5. Geometric Optics 3: Convex Mirrors

1. G.3.5.O. Overview
2. G.3.5.2. Identify the correct reflected image for a convex mirror
8. #### G.3.6. Geometric Optics 4: Problems Involving Convex and Concave Mirrors

1. G.3.6.O. Overview
2. G.3.6.4. Determining whether an image is upright or inverted, using the equation m = -si/so
9. #### G.3.7. Geometric Optics 5: Refraction

1. G.3.7.O. Overview
2. G.3.7.2. Predicting a sequence of refracted rays based on indices of refraction
3. G.3.7.3. Solving problems involving the index of refraction, n using the equation n = c/v
4. G.3.7.4. Solving problems involving Snell’s Law, n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2
10. #### G.3.8. Geometric Optics 6: Total Internal Reflection

1. G.3.8.O. Overview
2. G.3.8.1. Identifying examples where total internal reflection will occur
3. G.3.8.2. Calculating the criticalangle, Î¸c, with the equation Î¸c =sin-1 (n2/n1)
11. #### G.3.9. Geometric Optics 7: Convex Lenses

1. G.3.9.O. Overview
2. G.3.9.2.
12. #### G.3.10. Geometric Optics 8: Concave Lenses

1. G.3.10.O. Overview
2. G.3.10.2. Identifying the correct refracted image for a concave lens
13. #### G.3.11. Geometric Optics 9: Problems Involving Convex and Concave Lenses

1. G.3.11.O. Overview
2. G.3.11.4. Determining whether an image is upright or inverted, using the equation m = -si/so
14. #### G.3.12. Physical Optics: Polarization, Diffraction and Interference

1. G.3.12.O. Overview
2. G.3.12.1. Identifying examples of polarization
3. G.3.12.2. Identifying examples of single-slit diffraction
4. G.3.12.3. Solving problems involving single-slit diffraction using X = m λL/d
5. G.3.12.4. Identifying examples of double-slit diffraction
6. G.3.12.5. Solving problems involving double-slit diffraction using the equation x = λL/d
7. G.3.12.6. Solving problems involving constructive interference using the equation dsinθ = ±mλ
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